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The Johnson dictionary is a renowned English-language dictionary compiled by Samuel Johnson. It was published on April 15, 1755.
Choose THREE letters A-H. Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.
NB, Your answers may be given in any order.
Which THREE of the following statements are true of Johnson’s Dictionary?
A It avoided all scholarly words.
B It was the only English dictionary in general use for 200 years.
C It was famous because of the large number of people involved.
D It focused mainly on language from contemporary texts.
E There was a time limit for its completion.
F It ignored work done by previous dictionary writers.
G It took into account subtleties of meaning.
H Its definitions were famous for their originality.
All johnson dictionary reading answers
|1. D (1 to 3 in either order)||21. D|
|2. E (1 to 3 in either order)||22. C|
|3. G (1 to 3 in either order)||23. NOT GIVEN|
|4. copying clerks||24. TRUE|
|5. library||25. FALSE|
|6. stability||26. FALSE|
|7. pension||27. YES|
|8. TRUE||28. NOT GIVEN|
|9. FALSE||29. NO|
|10. NOT GIVEN||30. NOT GIVEN|
|11. FALSE||31. YES|
|12. FALSE||32. NO|
|13. TRUE||33. C|
|14. F||34. D|
|15. A||35. C|
|16. B||36. B|
|17. D||37. B|
|18. E||38. E|
|19. C||39. D|
|20. B||40. I|
Complete the summary. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
In 1764 Dr. Johnson accepted the contract to produce a dictionary. Having rented a garret, he took on a number of (4) ……………….., who stood at a long central desk. Johnson did not have a (5) ……………….. available to him but eventually produced definitions of in excess of 40,000 words written down in 80 large notebooks. On publication, the Dictionary was immediately hailed in many European countries as a landmark. According to his biographer, James Boswell, Johnson’s principal achievement was to bring (6) ……………….. to the English language. As a reward for his hard work, he was granted a (7) ……………….. by the king.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
8) The growing importance of the middle classes led to an increased demand for dictionaries.
9) Johnson has become more well-known since his death.
10) Johnson had been planning to write a dictionary for several years.
11) Johnson set up an academy to help with the writing of his Dictionary.
12) Johnson only received payment for his Dictionary on its completion.
13) Not all of the assistants survived to see the publication of the Dictionary.
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The Complete Guide to IELTS: Tips, Tricks and Strategies to Hit Your Target Score!
IELTS stands for International English Language Testing System. It is the most popular English language assessment test in the world and has been taken by over 3 million people in over 130 countries. IELTS is used by more than 5,000 organizations in the United States and Canada to provide a reliable measure of English proficiency for prospective students who are applying to study abroad or to work where English is the language of communication.
The IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is an international standard examination of English language proficiency for higher education and global migration.
In this guide, you will find everything you need to know about taking the IELTS exam. You will learn how best to prepare, what types of questions are asked on the exam, and how long it takes, as well as some of the most common mistakes made by test-takers. This guide will also answer any other questions you might have about the IELTS test. If your goal is to score well on your next IELTS exam, read on!
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The IELTS exam is a standardized test that measures your ability to communicate in English. It has four sections: reading, writing, listening and speaking. These sections give you a score for each of the four skill areas.
IELTS is designed to measure how well you can use English for communication outside of school or home, so it does not test grammar nor does it require knowledge of academic texts. There are three main types of questions on the IELTS exam:
– Task 1 (Reading): This task will ask you to read a text and understand what is being said.
– Task 2 (Writing): This task will ask you to write an essay answering a question.
– Task 3 (Speaking): This task will ask you to speak in front of an examiner for two minutes on a topic chosen by the examiner.
**There are also some other tasks that might be asked on your exam such as filling out forms or doing math problems.**
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The IELTS test is comprised of four sections: Listening, Reading, Writing, and Speaking. The Listening section consists of 4 parts: 2 conversations and 2 sets of lectures. These are followed by the Reading section, which has 3 parts: one academic reading passage and two sets of questions about it. Next up is the Writing section, which contains an essay prompt and a set of questions about it. Finally, the Speaking section takes place – this includes a discussion on a topic given to the test-taker and a set of questions about it.
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IELTS is accepted in many different countries and organizations. It is the most popular test for studying abroad and for applying to jobs that require English fluency. IELTS can be taken in over 130 countries in the world, including Australia, Canada, Botswana, Hong Kong, Kuwait, and India.
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The test is offered in two different formats: Academic and General Training. The Academic format is for students who want to study at an English-speaking university as undergraduate or postgraduate students. The General Training format is designed for those who live and work where English is the main language of communication.
There are a total of 6 skills assessed on the IELTS exam: reading, listening, speaking, writing, grammar and vocabulary. There are 3 sections in each of these skills (except for writing) with a score out of 9 for each section. These scores are then totaled to give an overall score range from 0-9.
What Types of Questions Are Asked on the Exam?
There are four sections on the IELTS test. The Speaking test is composed of six tasks, two of which are speaking activities and four of which are integrated tasks.
The Writing test consists of one writing task and one task that involves reading a passage and answering questions about it. The Reading test is made up of three texts, with each text containing five or six questions. Finally, the Listening test has three recorded passages with ten questions in total.
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Passage of johnson dictionary reading answers
For the century before Johnson’s Dictionary was published in 1775. there had been concern about the state of the English language. There was no standard way of speaking or writing and no agreement as to the best way of bringing some order to the chaos of English spelling. Dr. Johnson provided the solution.
There had, of course, been dictionaries in the past, the first of these being a little book of some 120 pages, compiled by a certain Robert Cowdray, published in 1604 under the title A Table Alphabetical! ‘of hard usual English words.
Like the various dictionaries that came after it during the seventeenth century, Cawdray’s tended to concentrate on ‘scholarly’ words; one function of the dictionary was to enable its student to convey an impression of fine learning.
Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class, who were anxious to define and circumscribe the various worlds to conquer – lexical as well as social and commercial.
It is highly appropriate that Dr. Samuel Johnson, the very model of an eighteenth-century literary man, as famous in his own time as in ours, should have published his dictionary at the very beginning of the heyday of the middle class.
Johnson was a poet and critic who raised common sense to the heights of genius. His approach to the problems that had worried writers throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was intensely practical.
Up until his time, the task of producing a dictionary on such a large scale had seemed impossible without the establishment of an academy to make decisions about right and wrong usage Johnson decided he did not need an academy to settle arguments about language; he would write a dictionary himself, and he would do it single-handed.
Johnson signed the contract for the Dictionary with the bookseller Robert Dodsley at a breakfast held at the Golden Anchor Inn near Holbom Bar on 18 June 1764. He was to be paid £ 1.575 in installments, and from this, he took money to rent 17 Gough Square, in which he set up his ‘dictionary workshop’.
James Boswell, his biographer described the garret where Johnson worked as ‘fitted up like a counting house’ with a long desk running down the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up. Johnson himself was stationed on a rickety chair at an ‘old crazy deal table’ surrounded by a chaos of borrowed books. He was also helped by six assistants, two of whom died whilst the Dictionary was still in preparation.
The work was immense; filling about eighty large notebooks (and without a library to hand). Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000 words and illustrated their many meanings with some I 14.000 quotations drawn from English writing on every subject, from the Elizabethans to his own time. He did not expect to achieve complete originality.
Working to a deadline, he had to draw on the best of all previous dictionaries and make his work one of heroic synthesis. In fact, it was very much more. Unlike his predecessors, Johnson treated English very practically, as a living language, with many different shades of meaning. He adopted his definitions on the principle of English common law – according to precedent. After its publication, his Dictionary was not seriously rivaled for over a century.
After many vicissitudes, the Dictionary was finally published on 15 April 1775. It was instantly recognized as a landmark throughout Europe. This very noble work.’ wrote the leading Italian lexicographer; ‘will be a perpetual monument of Fame to the Author, an Honour to his own Country in particular, and a general Benefit to the Republic of Letters throughout Europe.
The fact that Johnson had taken on the Academies of Europe and matched them (everyone knew that forty French academics had taken forty years to produce the first French national dictionary) was cause for much English celebration.
Johnson had worked for nine years.‘with little assistance of the learned, and without any patronage of the great; not in the soft obscurities of retirement, or under the shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inconvenience and distraction, in sickness and in sorrow’.
For all its faults and eccentricities his two-volume work is a masterpiece and a landmark, in his own words, ‘setting the orthography, displaying the analogy, regulating the structures, and ascertaining the significations of English words’. It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, in James Boswell’s words, ‘conferred stability on the language of his country’.
The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famous and so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George III to offer him a pension. From then on, he was to become the Johnson of folklore.
Johnson’s celebrated Dictionary of 1755 is the first dictionary to use as its main source a large number of written texts rather than reference books and scholarly publications. This is a free and online resource for people who want to learn to read and spell.